The Fable of 'Pope Joan'RE. WILLIAM SAUNDERS
One of the television networks recently ran a program about Pope Joan. The television show was not very clear about whether this story was true or not. What is the Straight Answer here?
The fable about Pope Joan surfaces in the writings of Dominican Jean de Mailly in the 13th century. From this work, another Dominican, Etienne de Bourbon (d. 1261), incorporated the fable in his work on the "Seven Gifts of the Holy Ghost."
The fable involves a talented and intelligent woman named Johannes Anglicus who wanted to pursue opportunities not available to a woman at the time, but were reserved to men. So, she dressed as a man. Disguised as a man, she traveled to Athens accompanied by her lover and pursued higher learning (again, that which would have been open only to men at the time). She then moved to Rome, where she taught science and gained a favorable reputation in academe. She eventually became a notary in the Papal Curia and then a cardinal. Upon the death of Pope Leo IV, she was elected pope, all the while keeping her disguise as a man. At some point she became pregnant by one of her lovers. (It is hard to imagine her gender remaining secret amidst her lovers and the chatty curia officials.) One day, during a procession from St. Peter's Basilica to St. John Lateran, and somewhere between the Colosseum and St. Clement's, she gave birth to a son. Needless to say, the procession stopped. After that, the legend has various endings: in one version, she died immediately; in another, she was bound to the horse, dragged about the city, stoned to death and buried; and finally in another, she was deposed and confined to do penance. One variation also asserts that her son became Bishop of Ostia. Please remember that all of the aforesaid is fiction.
Apparently, the fable had such an impact that many believed it to be true (just like the impact of The DaVinci Code). For instance, in the Cathedral of Siena, the busts of the popes line the nave, and her bust was included originally. Whether this was done as a joke or out of ignorance is left for debate. However, Pope Clement VIII, to prevent scandal and preserve truth, had the bust transformed into Pope Zacharias. Also, she was not among the official portraits of the popes that line the walls of St. Paul Outside the Walls in Rome.
Keep in mind that even in the 15th century, scholars like Aeneas Silvius (Epistles) and Platina (Vitae Pontificum), using historical-critical methods, discredited the story as bogus. In the 16th century, scholars like Onofrio Panvinio (Vitae Pontificum), Aventinus (Annales Boiorum), Baronius (Annales) and others corroborated these findings. Even Protestant scholars found the fable untenable: Blondel (Joanna papissa) and Leibniz (Flores sparsae in tumulum Papissae). However, some Protestants, especially in America, have continued to use the fable to discredit the papacy, even though the fable is truly a fable.
A few other sources of the fable place Pope Joan during other Pontificates. However, the extant historical accounts become even more specific and numerous as to events and dates regarding the papacy. Historically, there is no Pope Joan, who supposedly was pope by disguise for over two years.
Second, no mention of a Pope Joan arises until the mid-1200s. Given her dramatic "coming out," there should be historical accounts dating to the alleged time of her pontificate. Obviously, the legend was made up 400 years later.
Third, other possibilities for the source of the fable exist. St. Robert Bellarmine posited that the legend was brought from Constantinople to Rome to discredit the legitimacy of the papacy. Remember that with the decline of Rome and the western side of the old Roman Empire, the Patriarch of Constantinople believed he should be the head of the Church, which eventually was one reason for the schism between the Catholic and Orthodox Churches in 1054.
Baronius posits that perhaps the legend arose from the alleged effeminate weakness of Pope John VIII (872-82), although this charge is also disputed.
Finally, the story mentions Bernin'is beautiful baldachino over the papal altar of St. Peter's and how the bases of the columns have carved a progression of a woman's face showing the pains and joys of child birth. The ABC "special report" insinuated that these carvings were of Pope Joan giving birth. Oh please. Bernini was a devout man, who is buried along the altar rail of the Basilica of St. Mary Major. A better explanation is what Jesus said during his farewell discourse to the apostles at the Last Supper: "When a woman is in labor, she is sad that her time has come. When she has borne her child, she no longer remembers her pain for joy that a man has been born into the world. In the same way, you are sad for a time, but I shall see you again; then your hearts will rejoice with a joy no one can take from you" (Jn 16:21-22). Despite our labors and sufferings here and now, we too should rejoice that at each Mass, Christ comes again to us in the gift of the holy Eucharist.
While watching the ABC "special report," I was irritated at the obvious anti-Catholic propaganda. Besides addressing the fable of "Pope Joan," Diane Sawyer and Donna Cross showed their feminist bent. They spoke of the mistreatment of women at the time, including wife beating and the inability to be educated. Diane Sawyer commented that "women were resolutely excluded from circles of power" by the Church, hence the motivation for Pope Joan to disguise herself. Even in the interview, Cross was smirky, with that demeanor, "Look what I uncovered about the mean, patriarchal Catholic Church." Oh will the bigotry never end. Next time, be aware of these ABC "special reports," especially at Christmastime. Change channels and buy some solid books that are historically accurate.
Saunders, Rev. William. "The Fable of 'Pope Joan'." Arlington Catholic Herald.
This article is reprinted with permission from Arlington Catholic Herald.
Father William P. Saunders is pastor of Our Lady of Hope Parish in Potomac Falls and former dean of the Notre Dame Graduate School of Christendom College. Father has been writing his weekly "Straight Answers" column for the Arlington Catholic Herald since 1993. The above article is one of those "Straight Answers" columns. Father Saunders is the author of Straight Answers, Answers to 100 Questions about the Catholic Faith, a book based on 100 of his columns and published by Cathedral Press in Baltimore.
Copyright © 2006 Arlington Catholic Herald
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