The modern sceptic typically assumes that everything we experience can be explained by the sciences without any supernatural agency, any God, any miracles? Here are twelve common forms this objection takes in our day along with twelve brilliant responses by Peter Kreeft.
In the Summa, Saint Thomas could find only two objections
to belief in God. One of them is the problem of evil. The other is, essentially,
the problem of the miraculous, the supernatural. (God and miracles go together
as supernatural actor and supernatural acts.) Can't everything we experience be
explained by the sciences without any supernatural agency, any God, any miracles?
Here are twelve common forms this objection takes in our day.
has disproved miracles. Belief in miracles was possible in prescientific eras,
but not today, in the era of science."
Which science has disproved
miracles? How? By what proof? What discovery? Who proved it? When? No one can
answer these specific questions. Instead, the objector appeals to a vague, dreamy
abstraction called Science with a capital S. That is not science; that is religion
— bad religion.
- "People used to believe in miracles
only because they didn't know the scientific explanations for events. For instance,
they thought an angry god, Zeus, hurled thunderbolts down from heaven only because
they didn't know about electrical energy. Once they knew that, Zeus disappeared."
Yes, modern science has explained away some of the things some of the
ancients thought miraculous, like thunderbolts. But it has not explained away
any of the miracles in the New Testament. Science has not made the Virgin Birth
or the Resurrection or the feeding of the five thousand one bit less miraculous.
- "But the science of the future will do just that. Just
as modern science has explained away some of what the ancients thought miraculous,
future science will explain away all of what we think miraculous."
This objection is a religious faith, not science. What science will do tomorrow,
no one knows today, and we cannot argue scientifically from what is not known.
- "The true meaning of a miracle is anything that excites
wonder and joy and love. Human love is the real miracle, in the only important
sense of the word."
Nature and human acts are miracles only in
the same sense that everyone is a Christian — an empty and meaningless sense.
You can empty any word of meaning by stretching it so thin that it covers everything.
Sunsets and babies and acts of love are wonderful and beautiful, but they are
not miracles. Miracle means supernatural wonder, not natural wonder.
world has its own laws and stands on its own. Once we stopped seeing t he world
as a mere stage set moved about at will by arbitrary gods, we stopped believing
Exactly the opposite is true! Only if you believe
in a world that stands on its own, a world with natural laws inherent in it, can
you believe in miralces. The two presuppositions of miralces are a transcendent
God and a distinct world of nature with inherent laws. If there are no natural
laws, there are no supernatural exceptions to them. Atheists, pagans, and pantheists
cannot believe in miralces: atheists because they have no supernatural God to
perform them; pagans because their gods are part of nature; pantheists because
their God is the whole of nature. Atheists and pagans have no God outside nature;
pantheists have no nature outside God.
- "Belief in miracles
contradicts the laws of science, which tell us that things like virgin births
simply do not happen."
Science does not tell us what always happens.
It certainly does not tell us what can or cannot happen. Science's laws are only
generalizations from our observations of how nature usually works. They do not
Miracles do not contradict the laws of science any
more than a gift of extra money contradicts a bank balance. It is an addition,
not a subtraction. Dropping food into a goldfish bowl does not contradict the
ecology of the fishbowl. A presidential pardon does not contradict the usual laws
of the courts. Supernatural events do not contradict natural events. Science tells
us what agencies operate in nature, not what agencies, if any, operate outside
- "Belief in miracles demeans nature and the integrity
and identity of nature."
Miracles no more demean nature than a
husband demeans a wife, A miracle is like Father God impregnating Mother Nature.
It fulfills, not demeans, her. In fact, only supernaturalists can appreciate nature
for the same reason that only those who know a foreign language can appreciate
their own, and only those who face death can appreciate life: you appreciate a
thing only by contrast. If nature means simply everything — well, everything
is not a topic about which we can feel very passionate. Everything has no character,
only every thing does. Only if nature is a thing does she have character —
and she is a thing only to a supernaturalist.
- "The issue
of miracles is not really important; the essence of religion is not at stake here."
That depends on which religion you mean. No other religion but Christianity
absolutely demands belief in miracles. Disbelieve in miracles and you have not
lost anything essential to Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, or modern
Judaism (as distinct from Biblical Judaism); but disbelieve in miracles and you
are, quite simply, not a Christian. Christianity is essentially the good news
of the Incarnation, Atonement, and Resurrection, not an abstract set of timeless
- "The miracle stories were added to the
There is absolutely no textual or historical evidence
whatever for this common assumption, only guesswork or prejudice. However, miracles
stories were added later to many other religions, and even contradict the original
idea. For instance, the story of Mohammed flying to the moon on his horse contradicts
Mohammed's insistence that the Koran be his only miracle, And Buddha taught that
anyone who performed a miracle was not teaching his dharma (doctrine) because
a miracle would encourage belief in the illusion of the separate, objective material
- "Ah, but we must interpret the Bible in light
of our own sincerely held, honest beliefs. If we do not believe in miracles, the
most charitable interpretation of the Bible's miracle stories is to accept them
as myth and symbol, not to reject them as lies."
Perhaps that is
charitable, but it is not clearheaded or even honest — and therefore it is
not charitable either. We must not interpret the Bible (or any other book) in
light of our own beliefs but in light of the author's beliefs. The objector is
confusing interpretation with belief. You may believe in capitalism, but please
do not interpret Marx' Das Kapital as procapitalist. That would be imposing your
views on the author, assuming that he must believe the same things you do. That
is not charitable; that is arrogant. Yet it is amazing how common this arrogant
mistake is when "scholars" interpret the Bible.
"Jesus' Resurrection is the central miracle claimed by traditional Christians.
But isn't it crass, crude, vulgar, and materialistic to insist on the literal,
physical meaning of the Resurrection, on the biological reunification of Jesus'
molecules? Isn't it the resurrection of Easter faith in the disciples' (and our)
hearts that really matters?"
Easter faith in what if Easter did
not really happen? Faith in faith? That is a hall of mirrors. If there is no Resurrection,
there is no faith, for there is no object for faith to believe in. "If Christ
is not raised from the dead, your faith is vain", insists Saint Paul.
Death is a crass, crude, vulgar, and materialistic problem. It needs a crass,
crude, vulgar, and materialistic solution, like the resurrection of the body.
What set the ancient world on fire was not faith in faith, a psychology, a philosophy,
or an ethic, but the astonishing news that God became man, died, and rose from
death to save us from sin and death.
- "A non-miraculous
explanation of the Resurrection (and of any other miracle) is more likely, more
Which explanation? None of the alternatives suggested
works. If Jesus did not really rise from the dead, three questions are unanswerable:
Who moved the stone? Who got the body? and Who started the Resurrection myth and
why? What profit did the liars get out of their lie?
I will tell you what they
got out of it. They got mocked, hated, sneered and jeered at, exiled, deprived
of property and reputation and rights, imprisoned, whipped, tortured, clubbed
to a pulp, beheaded, crucified, boiled in oil, sawed in pieces, fed to lions,
and cut to ribbons by gladiators. If the miracle of the Resurrection did not really
happen, then an even more incredible miracle happened: twelve Jewish fishermen
invented the world's biggest lie for no reason at all and died for it with joy,
as did millions of others. This myth, this lie, this elaborate practical joke
transformed lives, gave despairing souls a reason to live and selfish souls a
reason to die, gave cynics joy and libertines conscience, put martyrs in the hymns
and hymns in the martyrs — all for no reason. A fantastic con job, a myth,
A myth indeed. That idea is the myth. The miracle is the sober fact.
Peter Kreeft. "Miracles." Chapter 9 in Fundamentals of the Faith. (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1988), 64-68.
Reprinted by permission of Ignatius Press. All rights reserved. Fundamentals of the Faith - ISBN 0-89870-202-X.
Peter Kreeft, Ph.D., is a professor of philosophy at Boston College. He is an alumnus of Calvin College (AB 1959) and Fordham University (MA 1961, Ph.D., 1965). He taught at Villanova University from 1962-1965, and has been at Boston College since 1965.
He is the author of numerous books (over forty and counting) including: The Snakebite Letters, The Philosophy of Jesus, The Journey: A Spiritual Roadmap for Modern Pilgrims, Prayer: The Great Conversation: Straight Answers to Tough Questions About Prayer, How to Win the Culture War: A Christian Battle Plan for a Society in Crisis, Love Is Stronger Than Death, Philosophy 101 by Socrates: An Introduction to Philosophy Via Plato's Apology, A Pocket Guide to the Meaning of Life, and Before I Go: Letters to Our Children About What Really Matters. Peter Kreeft in on the Advisory Board of the Catholic Education Resource Center.
Copyright © 1988 Peter Kreeft