Virtue and Hypocrisy

DONALD DEMARCO

The notion that “virtue is hypocrisy” is a curious one. Surely hypocrisy, the mere pretense of virtue, is not itself a virtue. We do well to avoid hypocrisy. But the way to avoid this universally detested vice is precisely through virtue.

When Fyodor Dostoevsky submitted Crime and Punishment for publication, he included a brief synopsis of the novel in a cover letter. In this way, he informed the publisher that his story was about a university student who "had submitted to certain strange, incomplete ideas which float on the wind." It was an apt description not only of his book, but also of what happens to so many "victims" of higher education who fall prey to the attraction of a less than adequate idea.

Tale of woe

Such "strange, incomplete ideas" continue to float on the wind and infect the minds of the very university students who pride themselves on being able to "think for themselves." Ideas of this type are like viruses. Indeed, such ideas are more insidious. By entering the mind and influencing one's actions, they can have an adverse effect on the whole person. "If your eye is not sound, your whole body will be full of darkness" (Mt. 6:23).

Gordon B. Hinckley has written a book entitled, Standing for Something: 10 Neglected Virtues That Will Heal Our Hearts and Homes (Times Books, 2000). In his chapter, "Making a Case for Morality," he provides a poignant account of two university students deeply infected by one of these "strange, incomplete ideas," who came to his office with their tale of woe. The two were engaged and had been looking forward to their wedding day with great anticipation. Now, through tears, they related their sad and unforeseen situation. The girl's untimely pregnancy meant that the couple would get married much sooner than planned, and under considerably less jubilant circumstances. They considered an abortion and eventually rejected the idea. But it would be necessary for them to compromise their education plans. "We were sold short," the young man lamented. "We've cheated each other," sobbed his fiancée. She explained how they submitted to the idea that virtue is hypocrisy. Now they were suffering from the realization that the absence of virtue is not spontaneity and freedom, but misery and regret.

Exactly backwards

The notion that "virtue is hypocrisy" is a curious one. Surely hypocrisy, the mere pretense of virtue, is not itself a virtue. We do well to avoid hypocrisy. But the way to avoid this universally detested vice is precisely through virtue.

Hypocrisy is a species of pride. It is a way of pretending to be better than we know ourselves to be. Its natural antidote is humility. But humility is a virtue. The mere semblance of virtue may illustrate hypocrisy. Yet to think of virtue only as an outward pretense is to have a strange and incomplete understanding of virtue. Real virtue is inward and enables us to be more genuine. Its purpose is not to make us gloat and be proud of its possession, but rather to help us to love more effectively. Refusal to cultivate virtue is not the way to avoid hypocrisy. Indeed, in the absence of virtue, hypocrisy flourishes. The engaged couple, unfortunately, had a woefully incomplete notion of virtue. They thought it was pretense, whereas in reality, it is essence.

Try as we may, we cannot fully deny the value of virtuousness. We sign our letters, "sincerely" and bid each other to "take care." We bemoan the lack of "integrity" in the business world and praise the athlete who shows "determination." Our stereos must have "hi-fidelity," and a major insurance company calls itself "Prudential." And vice, which continues to pay homage to virtue, feels the need to disguise itself in virtuous raiment. Thus, we cloak abortion in "compassion" and euthanasia in "mercy," while even members of the Mafia pride themselves on being "loyal" and "courageous." Hypocrisy may be a mockery of virtue, but in its own way pays it a lavish compliment.

Look inside

Virtue is primarily an interior possession. Its primary function is to facilitate the expression of our love. Without virtue, love remains dormant and unexpressed. As we express love through virtue, virtue takes on an outward demeanor. The caring heart manifests itself outwardly, as do kindness, courtesy, and all the other sundry virtues.

The incomplete notion of virtue holds that it is just an outer appearance, without substance or foundation. Thus, it is a sham, and the bearer of such a vitiated form of virtue is a hypocrite. We fear hypocrisy, which earns its stern rebukes. As a result, we avoid its apparent cause — virtue itself. Such is the trendy, but simplistic, idea of virtue.

Can't dodge a vice

It should be apparent that the person who avoids virtue because he fears that it will turn him into a hypocrite is more concerned about public criticism than personal authenticity. We must dare to be virtuous, even at the risk of seeming to be hypocrites. For this reason, some thinkers, Winston Churchill among them, have come to believe that courage is the mother of all virtues. Courage need not be associated with the battlefield. It is present in the individual who, knowing that he is not a saint, is nonetheless willing to expose himself to the accusation of being a hypocrite.

Of course, it is better to be falsely accused of hypocrisy than to be rightly accused of moral cowardice. We do not avoid vices, such as hypocrisy, simply by dodging them. The person who imagines that he is above hypocrisy has really fallen into a deeper recess of pride. Only through virtue can one avoid the vice of hypocrisy, though not necessarily its charge. But then, the virtuous person is more interested in doing good than in having an unsullied reputation.

Reverend Hinckley's penitent university students felt cheated by the incomplete idea of virtue that was floating on the wind. They began to realize through the "school of hard knocks" that virtue is for the stout-hearted — indeed, for those brave souls who persist in doing good in the face of opposition and misjudgment. Christ Himself remained virtuous under the assault of humiliation and public ridicule. And that is a familiar, complete idea of virtue anchored by the Cross.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Donald DeMarco "Virtue and Hypocrisy." Lay Witness (June, 2001).

This article is reprinted with permission from Lay Witness magazine.

Lay Witness is the flagship publication of Catholics United for the Faith. Featuring articles written by leaders in the Catholic Church, each issue of Lay Witness keeps you informed on current events in the Church, the Holy Father's intentions for the month, and provides formation through biblical and catechetical articles with real-life applications for everyday Catholics.

THE AUTHOR

Donald DeMarco is Professor at Holy Apostles College and Seminary in Cromwell, CT and Professor Emeritus at St. Jerome's University in Waterloo Ontario. He has written hundreds of articles for various scholarly and popular journals, and is the author of twenty books, including The Heart of Virtue, The Many Faces of Virtue, Virtue's Alphabet: From Amiability to Zeal and Architects Of The Culture Of Death. Donald DeMarco is on the Advisory Board of The Catholic Educator's Resource Center.

Copyright © 2001 LayWitness


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