Catechesis of fastingADAM A. J. DEVILLE
Pope John Paul has called on us to build a holier Church, and in his 1995 letter Orientale Lumen, exhorted Latin Catholics in particular to learn from their Eastern brethren so that the Church can again breathe with both lungs. From the East, then, source of the rising Son, may we receive the gift of fasting as just such a practice that unites, purifies, and strengthens us as the one Body of Christ.
In our day, we have become so estranged from this practice that the very word is often a source of complete bafflement to many. Fasting is more often misunderstood and simply ignored than we realize. Most Christians today in the West are radically estranged from the theology and spirituality of fasting, and it is rarely, if ever, mentioned in the churches today. Gone is the necessary eschatological horizon against which fasting makes sense. Today we seem to prefer a much more "incarnational spirituality," as the preeminent Byzantine liturgical historian, Robert Taft, S.J., argued twenty years ago. Such spirituality in the West has dealt what he called "a death blow to fasting, penance, mortification. Today among contemporary religious one hears more of gourmet cooking than of fasting – a striking counter symbol to anyone even superficially acquainted with the spiritual literature at the origins of religious life." Given such a context, is it any wonder that many simply imagine that fasting has been abolished – or, if it has not been, then it should be since we moderns are too busy to subject ourselves to such discipline. Others think that simple abstinence from certain foods – usually flesh meats – once a week is really all that is meant or required. There is, then, widespread ignorance about fasting, and we need to undertake anew an entire "catechesis of fasting," so to speak.
The consequences of the downplaying, or outright destruction, of such ascetic practices as fasting are not to be underestimated in the life of the soul and, perforce, of the Church at large. Many of the leaders of the churches today seem still to believe in a "Christianity Lite," premised upon the fiction that everybody is so busy these days that we cannot possibly propose to them a serious, disciplined, time-consuming religion: better to give them a little bit and let them get on their way. We have proposed minimal demands and therefore achieved minimal, often spectacularly pathetic, results. The paradox is this: ask a little, get less, but ask a lot, and get more. People want to be challenged; people are waiting, sometimes eagerly, to make what Pope John Paul II calls the "total gift of self." They simply need to be asked – and if they are not asked then alternatives are awaiting them, and they are almost invariably deleterious. The astonishing growth of, e.g., Mormonism – with its serious disciplines and demands – and other cults is proof enough of this.
In his recent book Christendom Awake: On Reenergizing the Church in Culture, the English Dominican scholar Aidan Nichols argued that since so many practices and teachings of the West have been lost or deliberately destroyed in the last forty years especially, there is a need to turn ad Orientem and look to the Orthodox Churches, which have preserved both right doctrine and sound practices:
At the present time, the Catholic Church, in many parts of the world, is undergoing one of the most serious crises in its history…. This crisis touches many aspects of Church life, but notably theology and catechesis, liturgy and spirituality, Religious [sic] life and Christian ethics at large. Orthodoxy is well placed to stabilize Catholicism in most if not all these areas.If we look to Orthodoxy for guidance on fasting, what do we find? The Eastern Churches of the Byzantine tradition – in addition to fasting each Wednesday and Friday, since Christ was betrayed on the former and died on the latter – know four major fasting periods of the year: the pre-Christmas fast, popularly known as St. Philip's fast (on the evening of whose feast it begins), which lasts for forty days prior to the celebration of the Nativity of Christ; the Great Fast of Lent, the longest, most solemn and important of the fasting seasons, beginning at Forgiveness Vespers prior to Pure Monday, lasting for 40 days prior to Palm Sunday, and then being supplanted by a still more rigorous observance for Holy Week itself; the Apostles' Fast, beginning after Pentecost and leading up to the celebration of Sts. Peter and Paul on June 29th; and the Dormition Fast beginning in August and lasting until the celebration of the Dormition of the Theotokos, August 15th (the feast the West calls the Assumption of Mary). The particular details of each fast vary both from church to church (e.g., the Copts are among the most strict, and have additional requirements over and above the Byzantine tradition) and from place to place, but in general terms, taking the example of Great Lent, the following may be said.
The Church is in time and its life in this world is fasting, that is, a life of effort, sacrifice, self-denial and dying. The Church's very mission is to become all things to all men. But how could the Church fulfill this mission, how could it be the salvation of the world, if it were not, first of all and above everything else, the divine gift of Joy, the fragrance of the Holy Spirit, the presence here in time of the feast of the Kingdom?Schmemann expands on the joy of fasting in his later book, the short but very rich Great Lent: Journey to Pascha. In what Eastern theologians regard as an antinomy – one of many that marks out the Christian life as one of paradox – fasting, Schmemann argues, "rather than weakening us makes us light, concentrated, sober, joyful, pure."
This note of joy resounds throughout the Byzantine liturgical texts of Great Lent. Unlike the West, where the Gloria and the alleluias are suppressed during Lent, the Byzantine tradition re-doubles its singing of alleluias because it finds joy in the fast, but, more to the point, finds joy in the goal of the fast: risen life in and with Christ. In the Triodion, the major liturgical book of Great Lent, we are exhorted thus: "Let us receive the announcement of Lent with joy! The time of Lent is a time of gladness! With radiant purity and pure love, filled with resplendent prayer and all good deeds, let us sing with joy!" Lent, like Christianity properly so called, is incompatible with a morose sadness; the only sadness we can have – that over our sins – is tempered by the joy that knows no end, the joy that Christ wants to give us abundantly.
Such a joy has led Schmemann to dub Great Lent a time of "bright sadness." It is bright because it leads to the light of the Risen Christ, but it is sad because we are called upon to weep over our sins and do penance for them. Fasting, then, is not only a cause of joy but is undeniably an act of penance – but a penance never undertaken out of guilt or loathing, but only in joy.
Second, "fasting" includes both abstinence as well as limiting the intake of food to one meal a day. Thus, under the shorthand of "fasting," the strict, traditional rule for Great Lent in particular mandates both an abstinence from all animal products (only fish, without a backbone, may be eaten) together with a fast whereby one eats usually only one meal a day which is simple in its preparation (i.e., should involve a minimum of cooking so that the time saved can be devoted to prayer and the poor) and not eaten until after 3:00 p.m. (the hour of Jesus' death on the Cross). However, insofar as one is able, one should not eat until after the Lenten Liturgy of the Pre-Sanctified Gifts, typically held in the early evening, like the Vespers service it basically is. As fasting makes such demands on us, the Church offers us the celestial food of the Divine Eucharist more often during Great Lent to sustain us on our journey toward Pascha.
This is the strict, traditional rule – fasting and abstinence – but the Eastern genius has always been to allow much diversity and freedom, tempering also the "rule" with a spirit of oikonomia that takes account of human weakness. This fast, then, is not juridically imposed in all its rigor. Many people today will only observe abstinence from meat on Wednesdays and Fridays, and both abstinence and fasting on Pure Monday (the day Great Lent begins, typically occurring – for those on the Gregorian paschalion – two days before the Western Ash Wednesday) as well as Great and Holy Friday. More strict observance is typical in monastic communities, as well as in parts of some Slavic countries like Ukraine – as well as the Middle East (especially among the Copts in Egypt).
The Eastern Church has never expected that everyone will undertake this fast, and in many cases, people positively should not undertake the fast if, e.g., they are sick or pregnant. In addition, Tradition has always counseled that what is most important in determining how to fast is to consult with one's spiritual father or mother and to seek his or her direction and follow that rigorously. For pride can often lurk behind our desire to fast. Better to observe a small fast with much humility and under obedience than a large one with great pride. As the Triodion memorably puts it, "In vain do you rejoice in not eating, O soul! For you abstain from food, but from passions you are not purified. If you have no desire for improvement, you will be despised as a lie in the eyes of God."
Is it possible to keep one's attention concentrated on Jesus, to look towards him, if one turns to dancing, the radio, television, films, the theatre or novels for one's pleasure? And I am not speaking only of erotic novels or entertainments; even things which, in themselves, are not bad…distract our attention from the Saviour, and make us insensitive to His presence. A saint can find Jesus everywhere, but this is difficult for the ordinary Christian.
In addition, there has been a pious tradition – at one time canonically required, at least of clerics – for husband and wife to abstain from conjugal relations during some or all of Great Lent. This is premised upon the belief not that sex is bad (as the French Orthodox layman Paul Evdokimov once put it, "Under the grace of the sacrament, the sexual life is lived without causing the slightest decline of the inner life") but precisely that it is a good to be freely, joyfully given up for a greater good and larger share in the joy God wants to bestow.
In addition to the rigors of the various fasts, especially those in Great Lent, the Eastern Churches also encourage those other crucial concomitants of fasting, viz., prayer and works of charity. As Schmemann puts it, "fasting as a physical effort is totally meaningless without its spiritual counterpart: 'by fasting and prayer.'" Moreover, the Triodion reminds Eastern Christians of their obligations not only to fast and pray but also to "loose every knot of iniquity, let us tear up every unrighteous bond, let us distribute bread to the hungry and welcome to our homes those who have no roof over their heads."
Of the additional prayer encouraged of the faithful during Great Lent in particular, none is so beloved or well known as the Prayer of St. Ephrem, recited several times a day with full prostrations:
O Lord and Master of my life!"But give rather the spirit of chastity." This prayer becomes all the more important in a time of crisis for the Roman Catholic Church in the United States in particular. Permit me to conclude with a personal example that I trust will make clear the link between sex and fasting that I myself have learned and continue to learn.
A few years ago, when I first attempted the full, traditional fast in all its rigor, I fully expected that I would last, at most, for a day or two but no more. The prospect of no meat (let alone no dairy or anything else) made me almost want to weep. With Chesterton, I believe that "Catholicism is a thick steak, a frosted stout, and a good cigar," and the idea of giving up any of those was unbearably hard enough even to think about. So I figured I was in for a fiendishly difficult time and would scarcely make it through the first few days before throwing up my hands in disgust at my weakness. I was in for a surprise.
Pope John Paul has called on us to build a holier Church, and in his 1995 letter Orientale Lumen, exhorted Latin Catholics in particular to learn from their Eastern brethren so that the Church can again breathe with both lungs. From the East, then, source of the rising Son, may we receive the gift of fasting as just such a practice that unites, purifies, and strengthens us as the one Body of Christ. In our day more than ever, we need to make a resolution to fast and purify ourselves and the Church, in the process receiving the gift of joy and new life at Pascha, where we may sing – in the words of the paschal tropar so beloved by Eastern Christians: "Christ is risen from the dead, trampling down death by death, and on those in the tombs bestowing life!"
Adam A. J. DeVille. "Catechesis of fasting." The Homiletic & Pastoral Review (February 2004): 6-12.
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Adam A.J. DeVille, a sub-deacon in Eparchy of Toronto of the Ukrainian Catholic Church, is a Ph.D. student at the Metropolitan Andriy Sheptytsky Institute for Eastern Christian Studies at St. Paul University, Ottawa, Canada and the text editor for Logos: A Journal of Eastern Christian Studies. He was married in August 2003.
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